Model Train Layout Software Freeware
Free CAD Track Planner?
I’m looking for a free (open-source / freeware / unrestricted shareware) CAD track planner for Windows.
More specifically, I use Kato Unitrack (N-Scale) to create large, elaborate layouts at Christmas time. I’ve been using 3rd PlanIt on my father’s computer but now I want something of my own – but without the big pricetag.
Something that I can just click different buttons for the different lengths of track would be ideal…and drag-and-drop to rearrange when I need to “bend” or “stretch” things slightly to line up right.
Any thoughts? Programs to avoid?
Ooops, I’m an Atlas and Peco N-Scale User… BUT I’ve been using Atlas’ free-ware for years now.
Here’s the Link: http://www.atlasrr.com/righttrack.htm
It works GREAT, and I enjoy laying out “Dream Layouts”.
You could also check a current edition of “Model Railroader” magazine: http://www.trains.com/mrr/
Shame that Kato hasn’t come out with their own software… or allowed a “add-on” package for the Atlas Software.
Model Train Layout Software Freeware
The Command key
The Option key
The modifier keys
To serve the functionality of the Mac OS (and because of historical differences), the Apple Keyboard’s layout differs somewhat from that of the more ubiquitous IBM PC keyboard, mainly in its modifier and special keys. Features different from other keyboards include:
The Command key (), used in most Mac keyboard shortcuts. The key functions as the Windows key in Windows environments, or a Meta key in Unix-like environments. In common applications, such as word processors, it is the equivalent to the Windows Control key. Compared to their equivalents of the standard IBM PC keyboard layout the Command key and the Option key are located in reverse order.
The “open” (hollow) & separate “closed” (solid) Apple logo keys () on the Apple II series, served functions similar to that of the Command key. The open-Apple key was combined with the Command key on Apple Desktop Bus keyboards (which were used on both the Apple IIgs and several years of Macintosh models) where it remained after the Apple II line was discontinued.
The Option key (), for entering diacritics and other special characters. Like the Shift and Control keys, the Option key serves as a modifier for the Command key shortcuts, as well as being used to type many special characters. It serves the function of the solid-Apple key in Apple II applications. It functions as the Alt key in Unix and Windows environments. Compared to their equivalents of the standard IBM PC keyboard layout the Command key and the Option key are located in reverse order.
Full-sized desktop keyboards with a dedicated numpad have function keys that can range up to F15, F16, or F19. F17-F19 keys were introduced with the aluminium USB keyboard. Compact keyboards such as the bluetooth wireless aluminium keyboard and the built-in keyboards on all Intel-based notebook PCs range from F1-F12 only, just like IBM PC keyboards.
A Clear key, instead of a Num Lock key, on models with full numeric keypads, as these are dedicated to numerals and not generally used for cursor control.
An “equals” key (=) added to the numeric keypad.
A Help key, instead of an Insert key, or on the most recent aluminum keyboards, a fn key, which toggles the function of the function keys between their default functions and special functions (volume control, expos, etc).
Two delete keys: Mac keyboards typically label the backward delete key as “delete,” whereas the forward delete key has the label “del” and the forward delete symbol () to differentiate it from the backward delete key.
Notebook computers typically include additional assignments shared with function keys reduce and increase brightness, volume up, volume down, mute, and eject (). Apple, since the release of the Pro Keyboard, provides these last four keys on desktop keyboards above the numeric keypad where status indicator lights are on many IBM PC keyboards. On the newest aluminium keyboard, these functions are accessed with the function keys, just like on the Apple laptops.
On Apple Desktop Bus keyboards, a power key (), used to turn on computers that supported it (and to type the Mac three-finger salute). It was placed in the upper left or upper right (in line with the function keys on keyboards that had them, otherwise above the other keys). The key was replaced with a more conventional power button on early USB keyboards, thanks to a proprietary pin wired to the Macintosh’s power supply in Apple’s early USB implementations, subsequently eliminated on the Pro Keyboard along with the special power supply pin. Most of its functions were transferred to the eject () key in such later keyboards (holding down the control key simultaneously to make the eject key act like the power key).
There is a difference between the return () and the enter () keys. They generate different keycodes and have different functions according to Macintosh User Interface Guidelines.
Similarly, although most software ignores it, the left versus right sets of modifier keys and the top number versus numeric keypad produce distinct keycodes (even on laptop keyboards where they only exist using the function key).
Six keys from a 2003 PowerBook G4 keyboard.
The Macintosh keyboards are somewhat reminiscent of the keyboards used for the Apple II.
Starting in 1977, the first Apple keyboards were built into the cases of the Apple II series and the later Apple III series systems. These first keyboards had chocolate brown keycaps with white legends and had about 52 keys. In 1983, Apple introduced its first separate keyboard with the Lisa; it incorporated a numeric keypad and lighter taupe-colored keycaps with black legends. It connected via a unique TRS port. The Macintosh updated the look somewhat and separated the numerical keypad from the alphanumeric unit, all of which connected by telephone-style modular cables. By 1986, the Macintosh Plus re-integrated the numerical keypad and became the standard for all successive keyboards. However, it also marked the last of the beige Apple-II-era designs which were usurped by the newer Snow White design language.
From the end of 1986 until 1998, all new Apple keyboards were “Platinum” gray and connected via the Apple Desktop Bus (ADB). The Apple IIe and IIc line continued with integrated keyboards, as did the PowerBook portable line of course, those of the latter being a darker gray color called “Smoke”. During the 90s, Apple offered various styles of keyboard, including extended keyboards which matched the features and size of their IBM PC AT counterparts.
The release of the first iMac introduced a matching compact, translucent-plastic keyboard based on laptop technology and marked the transition from ADB to USB. In July 2000, it was replaced with the full-sized Pro Keyboard, having slightly translucent black keys and a clear case. The PowerBook and iBook integrated keyboards followed suit with translucent keys first in bronze (PowerBook), then in black (PowerBook) and white (iBook). Coinciding with the introduction of the iMac G4 in 2002, Apple started making its keyboards white. On the Bluetooth Wireless Keyboard, Apple removed the adjustable feet from the back of the keyboard, giving it a solid base. This design was later quietly introduced on the wired version. The PowerBooks added another color, opaque aluminum with sometimes-backlit translucent legends, to the array of keyboard styles in use.
On August 7, 2007 Apple introduced their latest keyboards as of October 2008[update]. The new model is much thinner than its predecessors, requiring less wrist flexing and a slightly lower hand position for most users. Taking a cue from the portables, it has an aluminum enclosure, and the USB ports have been, once again, relocated to the right and left ends of the keyboard case. Software function and hardware control keys have a new arrangement, and there are keys associated with specific features of Mac OS X, such as Dashboard. In order to properly use these new features, a computer must be updated as of the initial ship date of the keyboards, usually with the built-in Software Update.
On March 3, 2009 Apple introduced an additional keyboard to their latest line of keyboards. The new keyboard is similar to the wireless keyboard due to the absence of the numeric keypad, however it is a wired keyboard with 2 USB 2.0 ports similar to the standard keyboard. Until this time the typical keyboard with the numeric keypad was titled “Apple Keyboard”, now the more-compact keyboard carries the name “Apple Keyboard” and the standard keyboard with numeric keys is titled “Apple Keyboard with Numeric Keypad”.
Apple’s oldest keyboards utilizing the phone-style modular connectors are not compatible with any other systems. However a few open-source projects have since developed adapters which allow them to be used on newer equipment and vice-versa.
Apple’s older ADB (Apple Desktop Bus) keyboards are compatible with other ADB-based systems, such as those from Sun, Next, HP, and Sony (and vice-versa for their non-Apple ADB keyboards). When using an USB adapter (such as the Griffin iMate), they function similarly to Apple’s later USB keyboards, although there can be problems using such setups with later versions of Mac OS X. Although external ADB ports ceased to be used after the Power Macintosh G3 (Blue and White), Apple still used ADB as the internal protocol for their laptop keyboards and trackpads until the last-generation PowerBooks and iBooks; for this reason, ADB drivers can still be found in Mac OS X 10.5 but not Mac OS X 10.6. Even with these operating systems, it is possible to use ADB devices with an USB adapter.
Apple’s USB keyboards are mostly compatible with Windows computers, and can be remapped (for example in order to regain the functionality of PrintScreen or to swap the cmd and alt key, using some freeware software ); the Command key works as the Windows key, the Option key as the Alt key, the Help key as the Insert key, and the Clear key as the Num Lock key. On the slightly older all white models the volume keys function as they would on a Macintosh, and the eject key has no function. With the new models released in August 2007 the volume, brightness, Expos, dashboard, eject and media controls no longer work without installing Apple’s Boot Camp software. This software allows for the volume, brightness, eject and media controls buttons to work properly, though the Expos and dashboard buttons still fail to do anything because Windows lacks this functionality.
The additional function keys placed where the Print Screen/SysRq, Scroll Lock, and Pause/Break keys are on most IBM PC keyboards (F13/F14 through F15/F16) do not work as those keys in Windows without a special driver. Apple has since released a driver, though it is only available bundled with Boot Camp.
The USB keyboard is also combined with a two-port USB hub, with the hub being USB 1.1 on older keyboards and USB 2.0 on the August 2007 model.
Apple IIe built-in keyboard
Apple II/II Plus Introduced in 1977 the Apple II and II Plus came without a numeric keypad. There was also a black keyboard manufactured for a Bell & Howell edition.
Apple III/III Plus Introduced in 1980 the Apple III and III Plus introduced a numeric keypad and special command keys.
Apple IIe/IIe Platinum The Apple IIe series, introduced in 1983 once again eliminated the integrated numeric keypad, but offered an external one. However it did finally offer a “delete” key. In 1987 with the introduction of the Platinum IIe, the keypad was re-integrated and the keyboard was updated to conform to the newly released Apple Desktop Bus Keyboard.
Apple IIc/IIc Plus Introduced in 1984 the Apple IIc was the first portable keyboard and lacked a keypad. In 1988 the keyboard changed color from beige to Platinum and was revised to match the layout of the Apple Desktop Bus keyboard, though still without provision for a keypad.
Macintosh Portable Apple’s first truly portable computer, the Macintosh Portable released in 1989 had a full sized Apple Keyboard with optional built-in numeric keypad or trackball mouse.
PowerBook From 1991 to 2005 all of Apple’s portable PowerBook computers have included a smaller keyboard ranging in color from dark gray, to black, translucent bronze & charcoal and finally an aluminum finish with backlighting. Along the way, they have also included special function keys and embedded keypads.
eMate The dark green translucent keyboard of the eMate introduced in 1997 was essentially an Apple Newton keyboard.
iBook In 1999 The iBook series introduced the first ever white keyboards. Debuting in a transparent finish, the later models were opaque.
MacBook/MacBook Pro/MacBook Air In 2006 Apple introduced the MacBook series of computers. The MacBook Pro keyboard continued the aluminum treatment of the PowerBook line, while the MacBook remained white like the iBook before it and introduced a black model as well. The MacBook Air also used black keys. The introduction of Unibody MacBooks saw a unification across all of Apple’s keyboards to use black keys, the sole white keys remaining on the white MacBook.
Apple Numeric Keypad IIe (A2M2003)
Apple Numeric Keypad IIe
The Numeric Keypad IIe was Apple’s first external keypad. Released as an option specifically for the popular Apple IIe computer in 1983, it helped correct some of the II series’ shortcomings. Later the Platinum IIe would incorporate the numeric keypad into its built-in keyboard.
Lisa Keyboard (A6MB101)
The first keyboard not to be integrated into the CPU case like the Apple II & III series before it. Designed for use with the Apple Lisa, it was included with the system introduced in 1983. Like the Apple III before it, it was intended to be a business computer and included an integrated numeric keypad. Like all Apple computers before it, it came in a beige case to match the CPU and connected by a unique TRS connector. In addition it carried over the use of the “open” Apple key from the Apple III as a Command Key (though it was represented by the “close” Apple character) and included a pullout reference guide hidden under the keyboard.
Macintosh Keyboard (M0110)
Introduced and included with the original Macintosh in 1984, it debuted without arrow keys to control the cursor nor an integrated numeric keypad. It used a unique telephone-cord style connector to the case. It also introduced a unique Command Key similar to the “open” Apple Key on the Lisa.
Macintosh Numeric Keypad (M0120)
Like the Apple IIe before it, the Macintosh provided an optional external keypad which also included arrow keys that daisy chained to the CPU via the telephone-cord connectors. Though introduced with the Macintosh in January, 1984, Apple did not ship it until September 1984 at a retail price of US$99.
Macintosh Plus Keyboard (M0110A)
Introduced and included with the Macintosh Plus in 1986, it was an extended keyboard that had a built-in numeric keypad. In 1987 it was updated to Apple’s new Platinum gray color. It continued to use the telephone-cord style connector to the CPU and was interchangeable with the M0110. Though Apple switched all other keyboards to Apple Desktop Bus connectors by this time, this keyboard was manufactured unchanged for 4 more years until the Plus was discontinued in 1991.
Apple Desktop Bus Keyboard (A9M0330)
Apple Desktop Bus Keyboard.
This was the first Apple keyboard to use the new input connection method the Apple Desktop Bus (ADB), first released and sold with the Apple IIGS. Designed to be used with both the Macintosh and Apple product lines it was the first to combine both the Macintosh Command Key and Apple “open” Apple key. Entirely Platinum gray in color (the Macintosh Plus has darker gray keys called “Smoke”), it was also the first to use Snow White design language that was similar to the Apple IIc. However, it duplicated the extended design established by the Plus. It was also the first to include an external power/reset button and an extra ADB port.
Apple Keyboard (M0116)
Apple (Standard) Keyboard
Also known as the Apple Standard Keyboard, it was the first to officially use this name. Apple would later reuse the name for a series of successive keyboards. The Apple Keyboard was a more solid version of the Apple Desktop Bus Keyboard and optionally included with the Macintosh II and SE in 1987. The heftier design solidified visually the power performance embodied by the upgraded Macs. Aside from weight the main difference was the significantly thicker frame width. It was the first keyboard to be sold separately from the CPU, giving the customer a choice of the basic or advanced keyboards offered by Apple.
Apple Extended Keyboard (M0115)
Main article: Apple Extended Keyboard
Apple’s advanced keyboard, the first to be sold optionally, was essentially a redesigned version of the Apple Keyboard, with an enhanced extended keyboard with FKeys and other PC-style keys. It included template guides above the top row of function keys to accommodate shortcut key references which accommodate many software packages. It was the heaviest of all the Macintosh keyboards and set the standard for many typists. It was sold separately from any Apple CPU and retailed for US$163.
Apple Keyboard II (M0487)
Apple Keyboard II
Introduced and sold with the Macintosh Classic and LC in 1990, this keyboard was almost identical to the original ADB Keyboard, but included flip down feet to change the typing angle and a design change that gave the frame and keys a more streamlined appearance. Internally, the M0487 differed from the original M0116, as the M0487 did not use mechanical keyswitches. In 1993, The Macintosh TV was the first Mac introduced in all black. It came with an identical black Keyboard II (using the same model number). This keyboard marked the return of Apple including a standard keyboard together with the CPU.
Apple Extended Keyboard II
Main article: Apple Extended Keyboard
A minor update to the Apple Extended Keyboard to coincide with the release of the Macintosh IIsi in 1990, it added an adjustable height feature.
(M0312) was manufactured with the classic Alps mechanisms
(M3501) was manufactured with Mitsumi or Alps mechanisms.
Apple Adjustable Keyboard (M1242)
Apple Adjustable Keyboard
Main article: Apple Adjustable Keyboard
The Apple Apple Adjustable Keyboard, sold optionally, was Apple’s foray into the ergonomic adjustable keyboard market in 1993. Often cited for its flimsy construction. It came with a separate keypad (not sold separately), the first to do so since the original Macintosh keyboard.
Newton Keyboard (X0044)
In the mid-90’s Apple released the Apple Newton sub-mini keyboard to allow quick input by a means other than hand-recognition which required extensive training to become useful. It connected by means of the Newtons serial interface. Many Mac users favoring the portable size were able to use it on a Mac utilizing a third party enabler. In a foreshadowing of the iPhone to come, the Newton also included a virtual keyboard.
Apple Design Keyboard (M2980)
The black Apple Design Keyboard.
This was the first major redesign of the Apple keyboard, featuring more fluid, curving lines to match the look of the new Apple product style. It was an unpopular replacement for the Apple Extended Keyboard II in 1994. Significantly lighter than its predecessors, it had a much softer and quieter key interface that was unpopular with many typists. Also, it only included one additional ADB port concealed on the underside, two of which on either end had become a standard feature on the Apple keyboards. This keyboard was also produced in black using the same model number (like the Apple Keyboard II before it), specifically for inclusion with the black Performa 5420 released primarily in Europe.
Twentieth Anniversary Macintosh Keyboard (M3459)
Bundled with the Twentieth Anniversary Macintosh in 1997, this keyboard once again excluded an integrated keypad, though unlike the Adjustable Keyboard none was offered. Based around a PowerBook form factor it also including an optional built-in trackpad and leather palm rests. This was the last ADB Keyboard Apple would produce and not sold separately.
Apple USB Keyboard (M2452)
Apple USB Keyboard (Bondi blue)
Released and sold with the iMac in 1998 this became the new standard for all Macintosh models for the next two years. It was the first to use translucent plastics, first in Bondi blue, then in a darker gray in the PowerMac line and fruit-colored for each of the five first color variations of the iMac. It had a built-in adjustable stand. It also marked a return to the standard keyboard with integrated keypad with the enhanced cursor keys above the keypad. Also, the keyboard had a power button on the top right side. This keyboard works with Windows except for the power button and f13-f16.
Apple Pro Keyboard (M7803)
Originally introduced as the Apple Pro Keyboard in 2000, but three years later Pro was dropped from the title. This keyboard reintroduced the additional extended function keys last seen in the Apple Design Keyboard and debuted in a clear case with black keys. Later a white key version was also offered. One major departure from all previous ADB & USB keyboards was the removal of the remote power key.
Apple Keyboard Essentially the same Apple Pro Keyboard, like many earlier products, Apple usurped and re-used its name (see SuperDrive). Following the name change, it was available only in white.
Apple Keyboard (German) (A1048)
(A1048) Keeping the name of its predecessor, in 2005 the case of the “Apple Keyboard” was changed completely, eliminating the frame enclosing the keys.
(A1243) The Apple Keyboard introduced in 2007 has a solid aluminum enclosure, as does the matching but compact Apple Wireless Keyboard. This keyboard is the first to omit the long-enduring Apple logo (solid or open) that was originally included to support using the keyboard with the Apple IIgs from the Command key after 21 years, even though software and official documentation had always referred only to the key’s other legend, . Compared to older versions of the Apple keyboard and to PC keyboards it is reduced by approx. half the width of a standard key; accordingly, the Backspace, Enter and right Shift keys are narrower than on other keyboards. It has two down-stream USB 2.0 ports, one at each end of the keyboard. This model was renamed Apple Keyboard with Numeric Keypad after the release of the A1242 model in March 2009.
Apple Keyboard (A1242)
(A1242) Accompanying the Early 2009 iMac revisions is a new version of the wired keyboard, which omits the numeric pad as with its wireless counterpart. The full keyboard with numeric pad remains available as a built-to-order option for no extra charge, as well as a separate purchase.
Apple Wireless Keyboard
Main article: Apple Wireless Keyboard
(A1016) Introduced for the first time 2003 based on the Bluetooth standard. It was essentially identical to the revised Apple Keyboard offered the same year.
(A1255) In 2007 an updated model clad in aluminum was released, which, like the MacBook’s keyboard, eliminated the integrated numeric keypad and special keys. It takes 3 AA batteries, with the power button on the right side of the keyboard opposite of the battery opening. Sometime after March, 2009, the A1255 wireless keyboard layout changed to include more international alphabetical characters. The shift keys and return keys changed shape and size as did the graphics on a number of keys not limited to the escape and command keys. The case of the keyboard remained identical barring the punch-outs for the different key shapes.
(A1314) On October 20, 2009, the aluminum model was updated such that just two AA batteries are needed instead of three; the only change in physical appearance was the placement of the plastic window for the bluetooth transceiver, which moved from the left side of the keyboard’s bottom to the center. Like the Magic Mouse released on the same date, it requires Mac OS X 10.5.8 or later.
Newton Virtual Keyboard
iPhone Virtual Keyboard
Timeline of Apple products
^ Image of the keyboard layout of a full-sized aluminum Apple keyboard
^ New slimline iMac keyboard revealed?, Electronista
^ Keyboard Software Update 1.2 Apple official support site Retrieved 2007-09-18
^ Keyboard – Apple Store
^ xkeycaps on linux
^ Extended Keyboard II & AppleDesign Keyboard Differences
^ Apple Wireless Keyboard manual (2009)
Apple Developer Connection 12-in Powerbook G4 Keyboard
v d e
Apple I Apple II family (II II Plus, II Europlus, II J-Plus, IIe, IIc, IIGS, IIc Plus) Apple III family (Apple III, III Plus)
Lisa Lisa 2/5 Lisa 2/10
Compact Macintosh family (128K, 512K, XL, Plus, 512Ke, SE, SE/30, SE FDHD, Classic, Classic II, Color Classic, Color Classic II) Macintosh II family (II, IIx, IIcx, IIci, IIfx, IIsi, IIvi, IIvx) LC family (LC, LC II, LC III, LC 475, LC III+, LC 520, LC 550, LC 575, LC 580, LC 630, 5200 LC, 5260 LC, 5300 LC, 5400 LC) Performa family Macintosh TV Quadra family (700, 900, 950, 800, 840AV, 610*, 650*, 660AV*, 605, 630) Centris family (610*, 650*, 660AV*) Power Macintosh family (6100, 7100, 8100, 6200, 5200, 9500, 7200, 7500, 8500, 6300, 5260, 5300, 5400, 7600, 6400, 4400, 5500, 6500, 7300, 8600, 9600, G3, B&W, G4, Cube, G5) 20th Anniversary Mac iMac family (G3, G4, G5, Core, Core 2) eMac Mac Pro Mac mini family (G4; Core; Core 2)
Macintosh Portable PowerBook family: (100 series (100, 140, 170, 145, 160, 180, 165, 145B, 165c, 180c, 150) Duo series (210, 230, 250, 270c, 280, 280c, 2300c) 500 series (520, 520c, 540, 540c, 550c) 190 series (190, 190cs) 5300 series (5300, 5300cs, 5300c, 5300ce) 1400 series (1400c, 1400cs) 3400c 2400c G3 series (Wallstreet, Lombard, Pismo) G4 series (Titanium, Aluminum)) iBook family: (G3 series (Clamshell, Dual USB) G4) MacBook family: (MacBook series (Core; Core 2) Pro series (Core; Core 2) Air series (Core 2))
Workgroup Server (95, 60, 80, 6150, 8150, 9150, 7250, 8550, 7350, 9650) Network Server (500, 700) Macintosh Server (G3, G4) Xserve (G4, CN; G5, CN; Intel)
Apple TV AppleFax Conferencing Camera 100 Cinema Display iPad iPhone iPod (Classic, Photo, Mini, iPod+HP, Shuffle, Nano, Touch) Newton (MessagePad, eMate 300) PowerCD Powered Speakers Printers (Color Printer, Dot Matrix Printer, ImageWriter, LaserWriter, Scribe Printer, SilenType, StyleWriter, Portable StyleWriter) QuickTake Scanner
300 Modem 3.5″ Drive AirPort (Card, Base Station) AppleCD Disk II, IIc Hard Disk 20, 20SC IIe Card Interactive Television Box iPod accessories (Dock Connector, Camera Connector, iPod Hi-Fi, Nike+iPod) iSight Keyboard (Adjustable, Extended, Pro, Wireless) LocalTalk Mouse (Pro, Wireless, Mighty,Magic) Paladin Peripheral Cards (80-Column Text, Accelerators, Clocks, Processors, Serials) Pippin ProFile Remote Time Capsule USB Modem Xserve RAID
Italics indicate hardware currently produced. See also: Apple hardware before 1998, Apple hardware since 1998.
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Control Shift Alt/Option (Apple) AltGr Command/Meta (Apple/MIT/Sun keyboards) Windows X Super Hyper Fn (compact keyboards)
Scroll lock Num lock Caps lock
Arrow Page Up/Page Down Home/End
Return/Enter Backspace Insert Delete Tab Space bar
System request/Print screen Break/Pause Escape Menu Numeric keypad Function Power management (Power, Sleep, Wake) Language input Any key Macro key
Categories: Apple Inc. hardware | Apple Inc. peripherals | Apple II peripherals | Macintosh peripherals | Keyboards (computing)Hidden categories: Articles needing cleanup from February 2009 | All pages needing cleanup | Wikipedia introduction cleanup from February 2009 | Articles needing additional references from November 2006 | All articles needing additional references | Articles containing potentially dated statements from October 2008 | All articles containing potentially dated statements
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